Chronic Liver Cell Disease (OSCE Guide)
You do not have to be an expert in order to diagnose a patient with Chronic Liver Cell Disease (CLCD), as it is too obvious even with inspection alone. But you might be under-prepared for this case, just because you would not expect such easy cases at the exam settings.
So, try to memorize all the key features suggestive of CLCD and organize your presentation mentioning the important positives as well as the negatives. Always try your best to assess the aetiology and the complications of CLCD during your examination.
CHRONIC LIVER CELL DISEASE – EXAMINATION
The general examination of CLCD is vital and you can get many important positive and negative findings for the diagnosis, aetiology & complications. There are two ways you can look into this step of examination. Easier way for a beginner would be, examining region by region remembering the clinical features you have to look for in each region.
But the smarter (and more advanced) way is mind mapping the clinical findings into diagnosis, aetiology & complications (Refer the Flashcard).
BIRD’S EYE EXAMINATION
- Generalized Oedema & Ascites – Due to Hypoalbunaemia
- Cachexia – Chronic Disease & Poor Nutrition
- Running Fever – Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) – (Complication)
- Skin Pigmentation – Suspect Haemochromatosis – (Aetiology)
- Petechiae & Ecchymosis – Due to coagulopathy & Thrombocytopenia (Complications)
- Tattoos – Hepatitis B & C (Aetiology)
- Jaundice (Sclera, Palms) – Suggestive of Decompensation of CLCD – (Complication)
- Pallor (Conjunctiva, Tongue) – Anemia (Multifactorial: Blood loss, BM suppression, Poor Nutrition) – (Complication)
- KF rings – Suspect Wilson’s Disease – (Aetiology)
- Xanthelasma – Suspect Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) – (Aetiology)
- Parotid Swelling – Alcoholic CLCD – (Aetiology)
CHEST & BACK
- Gynaecomastia – Altered sex hormone metabolism (Palpate & Confirm)
- Spider Navi – Number & size correlates with the severity. (Palpate & Confirm)
- Body Hair Loss – Altered sex hormone metabolism
HAND & FOOT
- Asterixis – Hepatic Encephalopathy
- Finger Clubbing – Hypoalbunaemia
- White nails – Hypoalbunaemia
- Palmar Erythema – Vasodilatation in CLCD
- Dupuytren’s Contracture – Alcoholic CLCD (Aetiology)
- Ankle Oedema – Hypoalbunaemia
- Abdominal Distention (Ascites)
- Smiling Umbilicus (Ascites)
- Surgical Scars (Previous Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peritoneal Aspiration Marks, Liver Biopsy Marks)
- Distended Superficial Abdominal Veins – Caput Medusa (Portal Hypertension – Complications)
- Superficial Palpation – Tender? Suspect SBP.
- Hepatomegaly –
- How many centimetres?
- Is it tender? – Suspect Hepatoma (Complication of CLCD), Hepatitis (Alcoholic / Infective)
- Is it hard in consistency with irregular margins? – Suspect Hepatoma (Complication)
- Hepatic Bruit? – favours Hepatoma
- Splenomegaly – Indicates evidence of portal hypertension.
In patients with Cirrhosis liver is usually shrunken. So, you won’t be expecting the liver to be enlarged. But what if the liver is palpable? Then suspect Hepatoma, Alcoholic CLCD & NAFLD. IMPORTANT FACT TO BE REMEMBERED
- Assess the volume status of the patient. Grade the ascites. Elicit “Shifting flank dullness” in a patient with moderate ascites OR “Fluid thrill” in case of a large ascites.
- Liver and Splenic bruits (over the enlarged liver & spleen)
- Hepatic Venous Hum (over the epigastrium)
CLCD – CASE PRESENTATION
This patient has generalized body swelling with gross abdominal distention and does not appear to be drowsy. He is icteric and anaemic. He has got no Xanthelasma or KF rings. The patient is having parotid swelling, gynaecomastia and there are multiple spider navei located on upper chest and the back. He has got palmar erythema, finger clubbing, leukonychia and there is Dupuytren’s contracture in the right hand. He has bilateral pitting ankle oedema and there is no asterixis.
The abdomen is distended and the umbilicus is slightly inverted & retracted (smiling umbilicus). There are no surgical scars or distended superficial veins of the abdomen. There is no tenderness on superficial palpation. Liver is not palpable. There is a left hypochondrial mass 3cm from the costal margin, which moves diagonally with respiration. Its superior border is not palpable and its not ballotable. There is a notch in its anterior border. It is dull to percussion and its dullness continues with the splenic dullness with no evidence of band of resonance in between. There is moderate ascites as evidenced by shifting flank dullness; no fluid thrill. There is no splenic or liver bruits.
My diagnosis is Decompensated Chronic Liver Cell Disease (CLCD) complicated with portal hypertension probably due to heavy alcoholic abuse. He has got no evidence of SBP or Hepatic Encephalopathy
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
1. Generalized Oedema & Ascites 2. Finger Clubbing 3. Dupuytren’s Contracture 4. White Nails 5. Palmar Erythema 6. Gynaecomastia 7. Body Hair Loss 8. Parotid Swelling 9. Ankle Oedema 10. Spider Navei
1. Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy - Blood loss 2. Poor Nutrition 3. Bone Marrow Suppression - Due to Alcohol
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hepatoma).
1. Palmar erythema 2. Gynaecomastia 3. Loss of body hair 4. Spider navei
Its due to recanalization of the umbilical vein secondary to portal hypertension. In portal hypertension, the direction of the flow is away from the umbilicus whereas in Inferior Vena cava obstruction, it is towards the umbilicus.
1. Hypoalbunaemia (Decreased production & intake) 2. Activation of Renin-Angiotensin Axis
1. Intraabdominal Malignancy 2. Congestive Heart Failure 3. TB peritonitis 4. Pancreatitis
1. Alcohol 2. Viral - Hepatitis B & C 3. Autoimmune - Autoimmune hepatitis, Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis 4. Metabolic - NASH, Wilson’s Disease, Haemochromatosis 5. Drugs - Methotrexate, Amiodarone
1. Infection 2. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) 3. GI Bleeding 4. Hypokalaemia 5. Sedatives 6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
1. Ascites & Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis 2. Oesophageal varices & Hematemesis 3. Hypersplenism & Thrombocytopenia 4. Coagulopathy 5. Hepatic Encephalopathy 6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
1. Running fever 2. Abdomen is tender to superficial palpation 3. Percussion tenderness
It is the reversible neurological dysfunction or coma due to liver failure.
Grade 1 - Insomnia / Day-night sleep pattern reversal Grade 2 - Disorientation Grade 3 - Confusion Grade 4 - Coma
1. Omit offending drugs - Omit Frusemide & Spironolactone 2. Find & Treat the cause - Treat constipation (Enema, Lactulose) 3. Antibiotics - IV Ceftriaxone & Oral Metronidazole 4. Supportive Care - NG feeding, IV fluids
• Resuscitate the patient - A B C approach • Correct Hypovolemia - IV fluid until blood is available • Prevent bleeding - IV infusion of Tranexamic acid & Octreotide • GI Tamponades - Temporary measure until definitive treatment carried out • UGIE & Banding - Definitive treatment option
1. FBC 2. Liver Function Test (Albumin, Total Protein, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP) 3. PT/INR 4. Serum Electrolytes 5. USS abdomen
1. To confirm the diagnosis (Assess the size & echotexture) 2. To detect Portal Hypertension & Splenomegaly 3. To detect any focal lesions
Serum Alpha Feto Proteins (AFP).
1. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen 2. Hepatitis C Antibodies 3. Serum Fe and Ferritin 4. Serum Ceruloplasmin 5. Liver biopsy
1. Slowing / Reversing the cause - Stopping Alcohol, Immunosuppressive therapy 2. Relieving Symptoms - Diuretics, Ursodeoxycholic acid (for itching) 3. Minimizing Acute decompensation - Treating infection & Constipation, Prophylactic Antibiotics 4. Treating Complications - Hepatic Encephalopathy, SBP 5. Liver transplant - Final resort
It is also known as Primary Biliary Cholangitis which is a autoimmune disorder of the liver. It results from a slow and progressive destruction of biliary canaliculi causing accumulation of bile and other toxins in the liver (Cholestasis). Eventually this results in scarring, fibrosis and cirrhosis.
1. Bilirubin 2. Ascites 3. Encephalopathy 4. Prothrombin Time 5. Albumin
1. Liver resection 2. TACE (Transarterial Chemo-embolization) 3. Liver transplant