Thyroid examination or the examination of a goiter commonly encountered at Surgical OSCE stations.
Firstly, greet the patient and take consent. Make sure you have enough space behind the patient’s chair before proceeding with the examination.
This patient is having a lump in the anteroinferior aspect of the neck which moves up with deglutition. There are no visible surgical scars in the neck or dilated neck veins and Pemberton’s sign is negative.
The lump is firm in consistency and its surface is nodular with a prominent nodule in the right upper lobe. There is no cervical lymphadenopathy. Its lower border can be felt, trachea is deviated to the left side and the right carotid pulse is deviated posterolaterally. There is no bruit. She is clinically euthyroid and there are no thyroid eye signs.
So, my probable diagnosis is a clinically euthyroid longstanding multinodular goiter (MNG) without retrosternal extension. I would like to investigate her with a thyroid profile, USS neck and FNAC of the prominent nodule to decide on further management
1. Simple colloid goiter.
3. Grave’s disease.
1. Prominent nodule of an MNG.
2. Hemorrhage into a colloid cyst.
3. Thyroid adenoma.
4. Thyroid carcinoma.
5. Foci of thyroiditis.
Thyroid lobectomy and look for the histology to decide on further management. If the histology is malignant, the other lobe is also removed later.
Over the right upper lobe laterally while the patient is holding the breath.
It indicates the increased vascularity of the gland (hyperdynamic circulation) – seen in Grave’s disease.
1. Nocturnal dyspnea and cough.
2. Recent onset dysphagia.
3. Deviated trachea.
4. Displaced carotid pulse.
1. Distended neck veins.
2. Positive Pemberton’s sign.
3. The lower border of the goiter cannot be felt.
4. Retrosternal dullness.
1. Recent rapid enlargement.
2. Recent voice change (Hoarseness).
3. Hard in consistency.
4. Cervical lymphadenopathy.
5. Irregular margins.
6. Multiple attachments.
1. Lid lag.
2. Lid retraction.
It moves upward with deglutition as well as with the protrusion of the tongue when the jaw is fixed. Being in midline differentiates it from goiters.
1. Cosmetically unacceptable.
2. Prone to get infected.
3. May undergo malignant transformation.
Sistrunk procedure (Complete excision of the cyst and its tract together with the middle part of the body of the hyoid bone).
1. Cosmetically unacceptable (Patient’s wish).
2. Compressive symptoms.
3. Secondary thyrotoxicosis.
4. Suspected or proven malignancy.